The Religio in the Military

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The Religio in the Military

Postby Aulus Flavius on Tue Jun 12, 2007 11:24 am

Salve amici,

It's been some time since I last posted here. Apologies for the absence, I've been rather busy.

I'm writing mainly in concern to how the traditions of the Religio were carried out in the military context. More specifically I would like information about anyone today who is or has practiced the Religio in a military setting.

I say this because I am in the process of enlisting in the Australian Defense Force, and would obviously like to continue my rites to the appropriate Gods. I am vaguely aware of some of the concepts of the Religio in the military, namely the numen legionis, but other then that the specifics escape me.

Also, how would the Fortuna fit into such a scheme. The good Goddess has become something of patron over the years and I would very much prefer to continue my rites to Her.

Any help in this matter would be much appreciated.

Vale,

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Postby Primus Aurelius Timavus on Tue Jun 12, 2007 7:44 pm

Salve Flavi,

M. Horatius Piscinus was in exactly your situation when he served in the U.S. Army. Some time ago he wrote a moving piece about standing in formation in basic training when the drill sergeant sent the troops to religious services, "Catholics this way, Protestants that way". When Piscinus remained behind, the drill asked "Jewish?". "No drill sergeant, polytheist". I can only imagine how that would have gone over with my instructor, Drill Sergeant Dillon.

(You might forget your ex-wife or your parents, but never your drill instructor).

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Postby Aulus Flavius on Wed Jun 13, 2007 3:55 am

It's not really my wish to put myself apart from the crowd, so to say. I am more so simply trying to blend the Religio with my future life in the military.
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Compatibility

Postby Aldus Marius on Mon Jun 25, 2007 4:52 am

Ave, mi Flavi,

I cannot advise you on the specifics of adapting your practice of the Religio to your impending new life; however, I would think service to the gods who made Rome Master of the Mediterranean would be entirely compatible with the spirit and ethic of any military body worth its bootshine. Even the need to adapt to (and from) local practice is a Roman trait.

OK, this is just the movies, but...in Gladiator, Maximus carried small clay figures of his household gods in a little pouch, and set them up wherever he had the shelf-space and the time. Modern Catholic chaplains have 'field altars' consisting of a small platform that unfolds like a card-table, and a (presumably consecrated) cloth to drape over it. The whole thing folds as flat as two handkerchiefs, making it extremely portable, and of course it can be set up in the time it takes to sneeze. Would something like that work for you in a barracks situation? (Actually, as an ex-drill sergeant, I'm pretty sure it would work in a barracks; the question would be whether it'd work for you and your practice in particular.)

I don't think having a different faith than the rest of the guys has to be an obstacle; just be ready to do a lot of explaining! If you're open to questions, if you respond with the aim of educating your commilitones and maybe broadening their horizons a little bit, and--above all--if you refrain from getting defensive, you should do fine. You may get a little bit of "He's kinda different, but he's OK!". Respect their beliefs, and inform them sufficiently so that they will know how to respect yours. When the evangelicals try to convert you, smile and let it pass. (Or tell 'em you have converted...to your present faith!) If it goes too far, report it as harrassment, because it is. But your best weapon in any of this is to show how being a Roman makes you a better soldier. That shouldn't be hard! >({|;-)

Basic training and tech school are going to be kind of crazy: not much time to think, let alone contemplate. Things should settle down at your first permanent duty station; you'll have fewer roommates and may arrange your off-duty time (including when, where, and how you practice) as you please.

Hope this helps, even just a little...
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Postby Aulus Flavius on Mon Jun 25, 2007 6:43 am

Salve amici,

Good help as always Marius. I do not wish to separate myself from the remainder of the men and women I'll be living alongside for about 70 days and perhaps longer when I do eventually go to ARTC. I doubt setting up an altar will be practical until I'm settled into a more permanent station. But to know that I can pay my respects to the Gods is somewhat comforting.

I don't want to wear my religion on my sleeve, but then again I don't want to hide it in my pocket either :)
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Religio while in the Military

Postby C.AeliusEricius on Thu Aug 23, 2007 11:44 pm

I realize this reply may be too late to help, not knowing when you were mustering in, but you might get a chance to look at the forum some time.

I was on a ship (USN 61-65). I kept my beliefs pretty much in my pocket, but then I keep just about all of me to myself. Maybe it was the shipboard environment, but people didn't pry into each others heads. If you stayed squared away and pulled your weight, and then some, you were cool. You'd see what each other read, and maybe ask to borrow it. maybe something would come up in a bull session, on watch or off. The ship was an amphibious assault ship, so we often had a "cargo" of 1,500 Marines. We got on, and the above applied with the Marines and us sailors. As much as we interacted, on friendly terms. It was a different world then, they labeled me a "beatnik" [hippies didn't exist yet]. The last was probably because the copy of the Odyssey I carried around was in verse and verse meant Poetry! (5 points for a near miss.)

I would pray at various times, I still do. In bootcamp I'd pray in my rack after lights out. Offerings, I'd buy cigarettes (I didn't smoke) to sacrifice -- throw over the side, off the bow, the fantail, where might be private. (Not all that private; some people thought I was continually trying to quit smoking.) I might do it with some food I could get to myself, to offer to the Gods. My Native American background (1/4) might have influenced some, like offering tobacco. I tried to tell some close shipmates what my beleifs were, when beliefs came up in bull sessions. It never clicked with them, but that was 1963. You might have better luck, if you chose to try to "explain" to any of your mates. Being Australian might help. I don't know how much the average Oz soldier is cognizant of the Native Australian beliefs and all, but the Religio is closer to natural religions than to the so called revealed religions.

Maybe I'll add some more to this later. Like on the deities the Legionaries prayed to. [check Yann le Bohec's Imperial Roman Army]

Mars and Minerva be with you, comilete

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notes for Bohec's the Roman Imperial Army

Postby C.AeliusEricius on Fri Aug 24, 2007 7:27 pm

I just transcribed some of my notes on this book. One problem with the book is that the translations, French to English and Latin to English are not constent. The credits say they were done by a corporation. There are at least two styles of translation evident with the Latin and, I assume, the Frnch. The author's work still shines through.
-- Ericius.




From my notes on Bohec’s Roman Imperial Army; the section on the religious practices of the army.

-- Dii militares
P. 249 Jupiter Stator, Valens
Minerva -- (who was also of accountants [?] and trumpeters [“of the loud battle shout” ?]
Victoria
Sylvanus -- & the Praetorians considered Him to be of the Camp, Sylvanus Campestris
Janus -- for the beginning, opening and closing of war
Mars -- for the whole of military service as well as Mars Gradivus, etc., etc.
Mars, Venus, Victoria – a trinity

Bohec also goes into what he calls “abstractions”, I call some of them deities.

Victoria, Bonus Eventus, Fortuna, Pietas, Disciplina (as both “knowledge” and “obedience”), Honos, Virtus, Honos Aquilae
Genii Loci
- - traditional civilian deities, some in military roles
Apollo and Diana, a “health service”
Bona Dea
Hygea
Neptunus – some for the medicinal properties of water [washing wounds?]

Cereus (p. 248) Italian deity. 3 May His day. Gave Iuno the plant by which she conceived Mars

- The Imperial Cult: It was more important to the Praetorians and less Romanized units than the Legions. The Legions prayed to Jupiter Conservator to protect the emperor. The Imagine seems to have been more tokenism until Septimius Severus. It’s initial results were disappointing.
- Only the emperor’s Genius and Nomen were worshipped .
- The Divi emperor, those who had been deified after their deaths, were worshipped. It wasn’t until 200 c.e. that emperors got called “master” except sporadically. [do they mean dominus?]
- Non-Roman deities were mostly not worshipped by any other that troops who were stationed in those deities’ native home, or by those who had been stationed there for some time. (e.g. the Leg II Gallica in the Italian campaign after years of service in Syria)
- There were also a number of deities who became Romanized and got some following in the army.
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Postby Horatius Piscinus on Sat Aug 25, 2007 4:13 am

Salvete

Continuing with some that Ericius mentioned...

First, by far, came Jupiter Optimus Maximus. He is most often found alone. Secondly, in conjunction with the Genius Loci of a camp. Thirdly with Juno Regina, or as part of the Capitoline triad. Here is one inscription that names several deities that are commonly found in Roman military inscriptions

AE 1989, 489, Luguvalium (Carlisle), Britannia


Iovi Optimo Maximo Iunoni Reginae Minervae Augustae Marti Patri Victoriae ceteris diis deabusque omnibus M Aurelius Marci filius Ulpia Syrio Nicopoli ex provincia Thracia tribunus militum legionis XX Valeriae victricis Antoninianae

"[Dedicated] for Jupiter Optimus Maximus, Juno Regina, august Minerva, Father Mars, Victoria and all the other Gods and Goddesses, by Marcus Aurelius Ulpia, son of Marcus, military tribune of Legio XX Valeria Victoria Antoniniana, from Nicopolis, Thracia."

After Jupiter, the two most commonly mentioned Roman deities are Hercules and Silvanus, as in this this inscription where both are mentioned.


AE 1912, 305, Deva, Dacia


Herculi et Silvano vexillatio legionis XIII Geminae Ant(oninianae L Aurelius Arimo votum merito posuit immunis

"To Hercules and Silvanus, for the benefit of the detachment of Legio XIII Gemina Antoniniana, I, Lucius Aurelius, immunis miles from Arimus, deservedly made this vow."


Nemesis was the patroness of gladiators. In some provinces, notably along the Danube, She is commonly found in private dedications made by soldiers. this one though is from Britannia

AE 1967, 253 = EAOR-05, 88, Deva (Chester), Britannia


Deae Nemesi Sextius Marcianus centurio ex visu

"From a vision, centurion Sextius Marcianus (dedicated this altar) to Nemesis."

Some Roman deities were the patron Gods of certain kinds of soldiers. Mars was the patron God of armourers, for example. Minerva, not unexpectedly, was patroness of buglers, tibicini. And of particular interest to me, Diana was the patroness of exploritores, speculatores, and frumentarii; ie. Recon units, LRRPs, and spooks of all kinds. OTOH cavalry units, drawn from various provinces, tended to bring their native deities with them. So Epona, Jupiter Heliopolitanus, Jupiter Dolichenus, Dea Syria, Caelistis (Astarte)and several Celtic deities are found throughout the Empire. At a place like Carovan in Britannia, where there were stationed different cavalry units, you find all of these foreign deities, and some local deities, but not Jupiter O. M. In a similar way, military doctors, who were mostly Greeks, erected dedicatory inscriptions for Aeculapius, Hygia, and Apollo.

Eastern deities, such as Mithra and Sol Invictus are associated with the inscriptions of military units, but they are relatively rare. With Magna Mater, there were two separate cults. The one that employed tauobulia, galli priests, and worshipped Attis along with Cybele was a Hellenistic cultus, found in port cities of the Mediterranean. When Magna Mater was first brought to Rome during the Second Punic War She was greeted by an entirely Romanized cultus, and for the most part a patrician cultus. Augustus and Claudius lent this patrician cultus some patronage as their families were connected into the myths, and thus there was something of a dynastic cultus that developed. It was really with Hadrian, so it seems, that an imperial cultus Magnae Materi developed that was promoted in the military. She was offered an entirely Romanized cultus and was invoked for the health and safety of the emperor. The Magna Mater is found among inscriptions more frequently than other Eastern deities, but it is roughly only 13% as frequently as other deities in any given province, and it is in a relatively narrow span of time and place. Her significance was more in Her being provided an official cultus in the military, while Mithras seens to have had private sodalitates.

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Postby Horatius Piscinus on Sat Aug 25, 2007 4:19 am

Salvete omnes

In the feriale Duranum, during Lemuria (9 and/or 11 May) and again at pridie Kal Junonae (31 May), the legiones held a festival specific to the military. This was the Rosalia, during which the standards were gathered together from the sacullum in the aedes in the center of a camp, ceremoniously brought out to the altar, where they were decorated with wreathes of roses and sacrifices were offered. Wreathes of roses had a special significance in the cultus of the Lares. No one really knows anything about the Rosalia, what it was about or what took place, other than what I mentioned above. But by looking at Roman pratices for the Lares elsewhere, and considering some military inscriptions, we can get a fair idea.

The focus of the religio Romana was not on the celestial Gods. Rather it focused on rites for the Lares. Secondly it focused on the spirits of the land, who were also Manes, geni locii, and then the Di inferi. This is borne out further by seeing all the dedications made by the legiones. I'll go into more on the geni locii in a future post, but for now we will look at the geni aquilae signisque.

CIL 3, 6224 = CIL 3, 7591 = ILS 2295 = IGLNovae 12 = ILBulg 282 = AE 1966, 355, Moesia inferior

Dis militaribus Genio Virtuti aquilae sanctae signisque legionis I Italicae Severianae Marcus Aurelius Iustus domo Horrei Margensis municipii Moesia superioris ex CCC (trecenario) primus pilus donum dedit dedicatum XII Kalendas Octobres Iuliano II et Crispino consulibus per Annium Italicum legatum Augusti pro praetore

"For the Lares militaris and to the Genius of Virtus within the holy Eagles and Emblems of Legio I Italica Severaina, I, Marcus Aurelius Justus, Centurian of the First Line, from the city of Horreis margensis, Moesia Superior, do give and dedicate this gift, twelve days before the Kalends of October, in the consulship of Julianus and Crispinus (20 Sept 224 CE), with the permission of Annius Italicus, Imperial Legatus and Propraetor."

When soldiers died in battle, their bodies were buried and rites were performed for their Lares. The same was done for the dead of the enemy, although probably separately. In the latter case the enemy Manes (they were not called Lares in this case) would be appeased so that they would not linger with the army to haunt them. Sort of like Ovid's Lemuria rite, "here's your beans, now go away." The families of dead soldiers, back home, would hold a rite inviting their Lares to enter into a centaph. Since they didn't have the body or ashes, they used stones as a place for the Lar to dwell and receive rites. It would appear that what the army did in rites for fallen comrads was to invite them to enter into the standards of the legiones, so that the Lares militaris would continue to travel with their units wherever they went. Perhaps you can see why the eagles were so important to the Romans and why the loss of eagles was such a great disgrace. This is also why the eagles and other standards were housed in a special sacullum at the center of a Roman army camp. The fact that the eagles were decorated with wreathes of roses at Rosalia, rather than burning the wreathes on the altar, is a good indication that the Romans believed the Lares militaris actualy resided in the aquilae.

Apparently it was not only the eagles that were thought in this manner. Some other inscriptions.

AE 1962, 117, Aquincum (Budapest), Pannonia inferior
Iovi Optimo Maximo et Laribus militaribus Marcus Iallius Bassus legatus Augusti pro praetore

CIL 3, 7493 = IScM-02-05, 127, Carsum (Hirsova), Moesia inferior
Genio centuriae F(avi Ianuari Flavius Avitianus signifer numeri Surorum sagittariorum eius voto libyenis posuit

AE 1958, 303 = AE 1961, 51, Colonia Ulpia Traiana (Xanten), Germania inferior
Genio signiferorum legionis XXX Ulpiae Victricis Publius Aelius Severinus testamento poni iussit

IGLNovae 32 = AE 1978, 707, Novae (Svishtov), Moesia inferior
Marti et Genio armamentarii Valerius Crescens custos armorum

RIB 1263 = ILS 2557 Bremenium (High Rochester), Britannia
Genio et signis cohortis I fidae Vardullorum civium Romanorum equitatae milliariae Titus Licinius Valerianus tribunus

RIB 119, Glevum (Glouchester), Britannia
Deo Genio cohortis cunctae Morivendus

RIB 448, Deva (Chester), Britannia
Genio sancto centuriae Aelius Claudianus optio votum solvit

RIB 449, Deva (Chester), Britannia
Genio legionis XX Valeriae victricis Decianae Titus Vet[

RIB 451 = AE 1927, 89, Deva (Chester), Britannia
Genio signiferorum legionis XX Valeriae victricis Titus Flavius Valerianus collegis donum dedit

These, and other inscriptions like them from all over the Empire, dedicated altars to the Lares militaris as, I think, were the geni of centuries, cohorts, and legiones. There were also certain types of soldiers who were especially honored in this manner, as is also seen in some above. The two examples below show the different spellings (on inscriptions spelling, grammar, abbreviations, nothing was standard) for the Di Veteri.

RIB 1456, Cilumum (Chesters), Britannia
Dibus Veteribus

RIB 1457, Cilumum (Chesters), Britannia
Dibus Vitiribus

The Veteri were soldiers who had served previously and were recalled to active duty. Here is a particular inscription by a Veterus, probably from the time he arrived at his new duty station.

CIL 3, 7505 = ILS 2311 = IScM-02-05, 160 = AE 1888, 11, Troesmis (Iglita), Moesia inferior
Titus Valerius Titi filius Polia Marcianus castris veteranus legionis V Macedonicae ex beneficiario consularis militare coepit Imperatore Antonino IIII consule functus expeditione Orientali sub Statio Prisco Iulio Severo Martio Vero clarissimis viris item Germanica sub Calpurnio Agricola Claudio Frontone clarissimis viris missus honesta missione in Dacia Cethego et Claro consulibus sub Cornelio Clemente clarissimo viro reversus at Lares suos et Marcia Basilissa matre dendrophororum enupta sibi Valeria Longa sorore pro salute sua suorumque

"For the welfare of himself and his family, (a ritual performed for) the ancestral spirits, the Lares, of Titus Valerius Polia Marcianus, son of Titus, a veteran soldier recalled to serve in the camp of Legio V Macedonica under distinguished Cornelius Clementus, after having served as a beneficarius soldier when Emperor Antoninus was consul for the fourth time (c. 140 C. E.), having been discharged after expeditions to the East under the distinguished gentlemen Statius Priscus, Julius Severus and Martius Vero, and also after having served in Germania under Calpurnius Agricola and Claudius Frontone, who was released then from service in Dacia during the consulships of Cethegus and Clarus, joined by his wife Marcia Basilissa, a mother patroness among the dendrophores, and by his sister Valeria Longa."

His "sister" was probably Caia Valeria Longa who is mentioned in another inscription not far away, at Utus, who was married to Caius Valerius Longinus, also son of Titus, and maybe the younger brother of Titus Valerius above. Caius Valerius was also a veterus. Caia was most likely not a Roman and had taken her husband's name when their marriage was recognized. There are inscriptions throughout the Empire where the emperors recognized concubinal relationships (soldiers were not allowed to marry while serving) as legal marriages and granted citizenship to the wives and soldiers' children. As veteri returning to active duty, the Valerii brothers were allowed to bring their wives with them, a special privilege. Titus Valerius had a very distinguished career, and although not mentioned, Caius Valerius Longinus probably did as well.

The Di veteri were likely the Lares of such returned soldiers.

Once each year, a legion would erect an altar to Jupiter Optimus Maximus. Sometimes, like the first inscription above, He was invoked along with the Lares militaris. The legiones became the home and family of soldiers. They tended to settle after service in colonies of veterans. While in the army their cultus was mainly devoted to the Lares of the comrads fallen in battle. Today in the armies of many countries, there are ceremonies honoring the standards in a fashion similar to what the Romans did. The standards are dressed in battle ribbons for every campaign a unit may have served in. In a way the same idea remains today. Although we don't think of the Lares dwelling in the standards, there is still a sense of the unit's veterans watching over the unit and its members. You go into battle with the unit's Lares at your shoulder. In WW I there are some famed stories of soldiers on both sides seeing the Lares militaris in the sky above, still watching over fellow soldiers. The cultores Romanorum honored their dead in rites at the Rosalia, as indicated in the above inscriptions, very similar to the rites of parading the colors as veterans today do in the US on Memorial Day.

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Postby Horatius Piscinus on Sat Aug 25, 2007 5:06 am

Salvete

Ericius mentioned Dea Disciplina. She appears only in Britannia. She appears in only six inscriptions, out of 3611 inscriptions, half of which are found at Corbridge. And there really is not that much to them, as the
examples below show.

AE 1960, 201b, Bertha, Britannia
Discipulinae Augusti

AE 1914, 1, Corstopitum (Corbridge), Britannia
Discipulinae Augustorum legio II Augusta

RIB 01127 Corstopitum (Corbridge), Britannia
Discipulinae Augustorum legio II Augusta

RIB 01128, Corstopitum (Corbridge), Britannia
Disciplinae Augustorum milites cohortis I Vardullorum milliariae
civium Romanorum equitatae cui praeest Publius Calpurnius Victor
tribunus

Concordia of the Legiones, who was probably different
from the Concordia found at Rome, was yet another abstraction. Like Disciplina she is rare. One inscription in Galatia, another in Campania, one out of those 3611 inscriptions in Britannia, three in Germania Superior, another three in Dacia where She was linked with the Di Faventis, two in Moesia Inferior, one at Thibilis in Numidia, two in Pannonia Inferior.
That's fourteen references to a Concordia out of 60,000+ inscriptions. Pax was another abstraction, one who had 9 dedications to Her, and then there was Placida who had three inscriptions dedicated to Her in Moesia Inferior. Virtus was an abstract deity who was especially associated with the Legions. Twenty inscriptions were dedicated to Him throughout the
entire Empire. Not surprising to see dedications by army units offered to Victoria for the Emperor; about 200 times out of 83,287 inscriptions.

Of all the abstract deities who were to be found associated with the
Roman army, Fortuna was most plentiful. In the Legions, dedications were made to Fortuna Conservata, and to Bona Eventua, a form of Fortuna found no where besides in dedications by Legiones. But most popular of all was Fortuna Redux, soldiers asking that She help them and the emperor return safely to their families.

Ericius mentioned Neptunus as a deity invoked by military units for the benefit of healing waters. That's true, but very rare. Instead, most numerous are the Nymphae, the Matrones or Iunones, and a multitude of local Goddesses who were associated with streams and springs. Out in the provinces away from Italy there are some 1,256 such inscriptions, compared to 2,898 dedications to Jupiter.

Individually Silvanus, with 435 inscriptions, may have been more significant on the frontiers, where He seems to have been a God of those communities of veterans and their families who catered to the legiones. As for a deity of the military camp, the juno of the current empress was in certain eras called upon as the Mater castrensis. Each province differed so that no one can say in particular what deities were most important to the military. In Britannia the names of local deities heavily outweigh Roman deities and there are some pecularities found in Britannia that are not found elsewhere. But then Dacia, Panonnia, and any of the other frontier provinces each had their pecularities. It would seem, from the one calendar specifically for a military unit, that some effort was made to bring uniform worship throughout the military, but we do not know if it had any success or for how long it was continued. What this calendar mainly looked at was the culti divi, or cults of the emperors and their families. The military then, as today, was at the whim of the current administration. Some emperors placed more emphasis on religion in the ranks than did others. How successful they were in bringing uniformity to military cults is doubtful after the time of Augustus.

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