Epithets of the Gods

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Epithets of the Gods

Postby Titus Iulius Nero on Thu Jun 30, 2005 9:28 pm

I would like to use this thread to list a variety possibly most of the known epithets of the Gods of Rome.
Also it would be great to have definitions of what the epithets imply.

I will begin with a couple of the ones i know of the top of my head.

Jupiter Optimus Maximus: The Best and Greatest Jupiter

Venus Genetrix: The Generator of the People of Rome.

Juno Lucina: Lady of LIght and Childbirth.

Diana Lucifera: Diana the Bringer of Light

Mars Ultor: The Avenger
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'The epithets flew thick and fast...'

Postby Aldus Marius on Fri Jul 01, 2005 4:13 am

Salve, Aeneas (what a wonderful name)!

I believe "Iuppiter" itself is an epithet; its constituent elements mean simply "Father-God".

A great place to look for divine cognomina (if one may call them that) is on the reverses of Roman coins. Interesting ones that I've seen:

-- Iupiter Stator, the Stayer of Armies in Flight;
-- Iuno Moneta (from monere, 'to warn'...this in reference to the incident with the Gauls and J's sacred geese; and, because Her temples tended to house treasuries, that's how we got 'money'...!);
-- Iupiter Tonans, the Thunderer;
-- Iupiter Feretrius, the Iron-bearer (I think; or is it 'iron-monger'?);
-- Venus Victrix (yes, the love-Goddess has a martial aspect);
-- Iupiter (or Iovi) Conservator, He Who Preserves;
-- and, perhaps oddly to modern sensibilities, Mars Pacifer--the Bringer of Peace. (Most often depicted as an armored figure extending an olive-branch.)

Numerous others can be found in Roman-coin references, if you do not have access to the coins themselves.

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Postby Titus Iulius Nero on Fri Jul 01, 2005 6:42 am

Thanks, yeah the name is definitely a nice one; Ancestor of the Roman People...

Coin References huh....how or rather where would i go to find such things??

I need to learn this lingo...'salve' and the like....
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The Lingo

Postby Aldus Marius on Sat Jul 02, 2005 1:06 am

Ave iterum (Hallo again)!

Books about Roman coins may be had at your local Library, most likely in the 700's (Dewey Decimal classification)--that's the section for Arts, Collectibles, and other Good Things. (Computer programmers were using the phrase 'Good Thing' before Martha Stewart got outta grade school.) Some works might be in the 900's under Roman Archaeology; and if you don't find anything in circulation, try the Reference shelves--they are almost certain to have something.

As for the local patois...


AVE is used as a greeting; it means 'Hello!' or 'Hail!' or 'Salutations' or anything similar.
-- If greeting someone whose Roman name ends with -us, end the name-part with -e. So "Hey, there, Aldus!" would be "Ave, Alde!"
-- If the name ends with -ius, change the ending to -i: "Hello, Marius!" goes "Ave, Mari!"
-- If you're using their whole name, figure the endings for each component separately: "Ave, Alde Mari!" "Salve, Mari Peregrine!"
-- Some Romans have weird names. Just ask them how to properly greet them; Draco and Curio, for example, don't get their endings tweaked at all!

If you are greeting more than one person, as would be the case for most public Board posts, it's AVETE.

SALVE ('sal-veh', not 'salve' as in balm) can be used for either 'Hello' or 'Goodbye'. It is considered a tad more formal than Ave; it's kinda like 'God(s) save you.'

More than one...? --You guessed it: SALVETE.

You've already seen ITERUM; that means 'again', if you've already posted once in that thread.

I will sometimes bounce up to someone and say 'Ave (or Salve), Magister!'...that's roughly 'Greetings, O Wise and Mighty One!'

AVETE (or SALVETE) OMNES is 'Greetings, All.'

Sometimes someone will get really Formal and open the way Romans did in private correspondence: 'Alde Mari Tite Labiene salutem plurimum dico' (Aldus Marius [your name] to Titus Labienus [recipient's name] says many greetings). The last three words are usually abbreviated as 's.p.d.' (Mi Draco, if I have munched this phrase, forgive me; as you know, I'm not a bit formal m'self, so I don't get much practice!) >({|;-)

If I write 'Ex papilionem...s.p.d.', that's like the other one except that it issues forth 'Out of my pup-tent'...me being a military type with canines in tow, and always on my way to Somewhere Else.

VALE ('vah-leh') is 'Goodbye'; its literal meaning is 'Be Well.'

If you are very fond of that person, you might even end with SI TU VALES, VALEO ('If you're doing well, then so am I').

OPTIME VALEO is 'I'm doing great!' (You can say this anywhere in the message; it doesn't have to wait for the goodbye.)

Sometimes we will also sign off with 'In [fill in name of fave Roman virtue here]'. So mine's 'In amicitia et fide'--In Friendship and Faith. (Fides is a lot closer to 'fealty' than to the religious kind of faith.)

GRATIAS TIBI and variants (GRATIAS AGO, GRATIAS TIBI AGO) are all ways of saying 'Thank You'. MULTIBUS GRATIAS is 'Many Thanks'.

Others, hmm...BONAM FORTUNAM would be 'Good Luck';

RIDENS MAGNA VOCE (I think) is LOL;

NISI MEMORIA ME FALLET is 'IIRC';

MEA SENTENTIA is IMO;

MIHI IGNOSCE is 'Pardon me';

IO!, EUGE!, and IO TRIUMPHE! are all varying-strength cheers;

BENE EST means 'It's all good';

BONAM NOCTEM is 'Goodnight';

...and ROMANUS RIDENS is this little fellow: >({|:-)


Enough to get you started...? <g>

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Postby Titus Iulius Nero on Sat Jul 02, 2005 4:22 am

Ave Mari,

Gratias tibi!

Salve
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How do the Romans say 'You're Welcome'?

Postby Aldus Marius on Sat Jul 02, 2005 9:03 am

Amice (Friend) Aeneas:

Libenter (Gladly)! >({|:-D

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Postby Q Valerius on Sat Jul 02, 2005 5:11 pm

Eugapae! Bonum est verbam Latinam dictam a novissimo audire. :D Just wanted to add also that the literal meaning of salvere is to be well also, just like valere (cf. salus - health). Aeneas, Latin is a very rich language that if you take a bit to learn can benefit you greatly. I'll be glad to help you with any aspect of it.

Valete bene, omnes,

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