Marius' Infamous Legion List!!

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Marius' Infamous Legion List!!

Postby Aldus Marius on Sat May 21, 2005 6:09 am

Salvete commilitones...!!

...and allow me to introduce the first electronic copy of my FileManager Legion database ever to be seen outside the U.S. Dept. of Veterans' Affairs! (I've been sharing printouts.)


<-----[ THE IMPERIAL ROMAN LEGIONS and their Movements ]----->

from the Reign of Augustus (d. 14AD) to that of Septimius Severus (d. 235AD)

flaming supersonic Pilum
~ ~ ~ ~ ~ =========[)-------`~+ )))))))))


Legend: SUP. = 'Superior' (upriver part of a Rhine/Danube Province)
............ INF. = 'Inferior' (downriver portion of same)
............ ~ = 'about', 'around then'; indicates approximate date
............ poss. = 'possibly'

[Notes:]
I will always spell out the Province in which a Legion was first stationed. After that, I will specify the city, but not the Province again unless it differs from the last assignment. I list the Province by itself when the city is unknown.

If a city-and-Province have already been mentioned together once, and the city occurs again in that entry, I won't repeat the Province; it is assumed that the city hadn't moved. >({|;-)

If I don't list something (like which Emperor ordered a movement), it's because I don't know.

'AD': I'm not particularly attached to this designation, but it's what I'm used to. Feel free to change it to CE, AUC, ATC, or whatever else you like on your copy.

Okay, here ya go--! (May the formatting not be munched.)

|>[ S P Q R ]<|

The original AUGUSTAN LEGIONS:

I Germanica, Bonna, GERMANIA INFERIOR

-- [disbanded by Vespasian after Civilis' revolt, AD 70]


II Augusta, Argentoratum, GERMANIA SUPERIOR

-- [Durnovaria, BRITANNIA by Claudius, AD 43; to Glevum in AD 67 by Nero; settled at Isca Silurum by Vespasian, AD 75]


III Augusta, Thamugadi, NUMIDIA

-- [to Lambaesis by Trajan, ~ AD 112]


III Cyrenaica, Alexandria, AEGYPTUS

-- [to Bostra, ARABIA by Hadrian, ~ AD 117]


III Gallica, Raphaneae, SYRIA

-- [to MOESIA in AD 68, poss. by Galba; back at Raphaneae in AD 69, poss. by Vespasian]


IV Macedonica, Legio, HISPANIA TARRAGONENSIS

-- [to Moguntiacum, GERMANIA SUP. by Claudius, AD 43; disbanded by Vespasian, AD 70]


IV Scythica, Viminacium, MOESIA SUPERIOR

-- [to Cyrrhus, SYRIA by Nero, AD 57]


V Alaudae, Vetera, GERMANIA INFERIOR

-- [lost in DACIA by Domitian, 86 AD]


V Macedonica, Oescus, MOESIA INFERIOR

-- [in IUDAEA for Nero, AD 61; to Iglita, MOESIA INF. by Vespasian, AD 71; back to Iglita by Trajan in 101, having corked off somewhere else in-between; to Potaissa, DACIA by Marcus Aurelius, AD 168]


VI Ferrata, Raphaneae, SYRIA

-- [to Samasota by Vespasian, AD 72; to Bostra, ARABIA by Trajan, AD 106; to Lejjun, IUDAEA by Hadrian ~ AD 138]


VI Victrix, Legio, HISPANIA TARRAGONENSIS

-- [to Novaesium, GERMANIA INF. by Vespasian, AD 69; settled at Eburacum, BRITANNIA by Hadrian, AD 122]


VII Claudia, Tilurium, DALMATIA

-- [to Viminacium, MOESIA SUP. by Nero in AD 57]


VIII Augusta, Poetovio, PANNONIA SUPERIOR

-- [to Novae in MOESIA INF. under Claudius, AD 45; to Argentoratum, GERMANIA SUP. by Vespasian, AD 70]


IX Hispana, Siscia, PANNONIA SUPERIOR

-- [to Ratae, BRITANNIA by Claudius, AD 43; to Lindum Coloniae by Claudius in AD 50; to Eburacum by Vespasian, AD 71; to Noviomagus, GERMANIA INF. by Hadrian, AD 122; to Jerusalem, IUDAEA, poss. by Hadrian, ~ AD 131; lost either there or in ARMENIA, poss. by Marcus Aurelius, ~ AD 161]


X Fretensis, Cyrrhus, SYRIA

-- [to Jerusalem, IUDAEA by Vespasian, AD 68]


X Gemina, Legio, HISPANIA TARRAGONENSIS

-- [to Carnutum, PANNONIA SUP. by Nero, AD 63; back to Legio, poss. by Galba, AD 68; to Noviomagus, GERMANIA INF. by Vespasian, AD 71; to Vindobona, PANNONIA SUP. by Trajan, AD 105]


XI Claudia, Burnum, DALMATIA

-- [to Vindonissa, GERMANIA SUP. by Vespasian, AD 70; to Novae, MOESIA INF. by Trajan, AD 105]


XII Fulminata, Raphaneae, SYRIA

-- [to Melitene, CAPPADOCIA by Vespasian, AD 70]


XIII Gemina, Vindonissa, GERMANIA SUPERIOR

-- [to Poetovio, PANNONIA SUP. by Claudius, AD 45; to Vindobona by Domitian, AD 85; to Apulum, DACIA by Trajan, AD 105]


XIV Gemina, Moguntiacum, GERMANIA SUPERIOR

-- [to Letocetum, BRITANNIA by Claudius, AD 44; to Viroconium by Nero, AD 56; back to Moguntiacum by Nero, AD 67; possibly in Lugdunum, GALLIA by AD 68; to Aquincum, PANNONIA INF. ~ AD 69; to Carnutum, PANNONIA SUP. by Trajan, AD 106]


XV Apollinaris, Carnutum, PANNONIA SUPERIOR

-- [to IUDAEA by Nero, ~ AD 62; back to Carnutum by Vespasian, ~ AD 71; to Satala, CAPPADOCIA by Trajan, AD 114]


XVI Gallica, Moguntiacum, GERMANIA SUPERIOR

-- [to Novaesium, GERMANIA INF. by Claudius, AD 43; disbanded by Vespasian in AD 70]


XVII Legio

-- [lost at Teutoburger Wald, Germania Libera, AD 9]


XVIII Legio

-- [lost at Teutoburger Wald, Germania Libera, AD 9]


XIX Legio

-- [lost at Teutoburger Wald, Germania Libera, AD 9]


XX Valeria Victrix, Novaesium, GERMANIA INFERIOR

-- [to Camulodonum, BRITANNIA by Claudius, AD 43; to Glevum by Claudius, AD 48; to Viroconium by Nero, AD 67; to Pinnata Castra by Domitian, AD 84; settled at Deva by Domitian, AD 88]


XXI Rapax, Vetera, GERMANIA INFERIOR

-- [to Vindonissa, GERMANIA SUP. by Claudius, AD 43; to Bonna, GERMANIA INF. by Vespasian, AD 70; to Moguntiacum, GERMANIA SUP. by Domitian, ~ AD 85; lost in DACIA by Domitian, AD 92]


XXII Deiotariana, Alexandria, AEGYPTUS

-- [lost in IUDAEA by Hadrian, AD 134]




Legions raised by GAIUS ('Caligula'):

XV Primigenia, Vetera, GERMANIA INFERIOR

-- [disbanded by Vespasian, AD 70]


XXII Primigenia, Moguntiacum, GERMANIA SUPERIOR

-- [to Vetera, GERMANIA INF. by Vespasian, AD 70; back to Moguntiacum by Domitian, AD 85]



by NERO:

I Italica, Novae, MOESIA INFERIOR

-- [never moved]


I Adiutrix, Moguntiacum, GERMANIA SUPERIOR

-- [to Danube front by Domitian, AD 85; to DACIA by Trajan, AD 112; settled at Brigetio, PANNONIA INF. by Hadrian, ~ AD 117]



by GALBA:

VII Gemina, Legio, HISPANIA TARRAGONENSIS

-- [to PANNONIA in AD 69, poss. by Vespasian; back to Legio by Vespasian, AD 71]



by VESPASIAN:

II Adiutrix, Lindum Colonia, BRITANNIA

-- [to Deva by Vespasian, AD 78; to Danube front by Domitian, AD 88; to Aquincum, PANNONIA INF. by Trajan, AD 105]


IV Flavia, Burnum, DALMATIA

-- [to Danube front by Domitian, AD 85; settled at Singidunum, MOESIA SUP. by Hadrian, AD 138]


XVI Flavia, Satala, CAPPADOCIA

-- [to Samasota, SYRIA by Hadrian, ~ AD 117]



and by DOMITIAN:

I Minervia, Bonna, GERMANIA INFERIOR

-- [never moved]



TRAJAN'S LEGIONS:

II Traiana, SYRIA

-- [to Alexandria, AEGYPTUS (poss. by Hadrian), ~ AD 117]


XXX Ulpia Traiana, Vetera, GERMANIA INFERIOR

-- [to PANNONIA by Trajan, NLT AD 112; back to GERMANIA INF. by AD 215]



MARCUS AURELIUS:

II Italica, Lauriacum, NORICUM

-- [never moved]


III Italica, Castra Regina, RAETIA

-- [never moved]



The SEVERAN LEGIONS:

I Parthica, Singara, MESOPOTAMIA

-- [at Nisibis by AD 251]


II Parthica, Albanum, ITALIA

-- [never moved]


III Parthica, Resaina, MESOPOTAMIA

-- [never moved]



The key to really getting a lot out of this information is to be aware of which Emperors were prosecuting what wars at any given time. Most of the Legions got shuffled around in AD 70, for example, and a few on the Rhine got dismissed. If one realizes that this was the aftermath of the Year of Four Emperors, this begins to make sense. The Revolt of Civilis, which took place concurrently, saw some of the Rhine Legions make a pact with the rebel chieftain in order to save their scrawny hides. These were the units that got discharged en masse by Vespasian when the dust settled. ...Stuff like that.

Hope ya find this useful--or at least decorative! >({|:-D


Yours under the Eagles,
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Postby Quintus Pomponius Atticus on Sat May 21, 2005 11:10 am

Thank you for the practicable overview, Mari ! This is the kind of research notes that should be on every classicist's desk. May I suggest to upload it to SVR's website ?

I'm planning to draw up a chronological / thematical list of ancient historians and the periods and subjects they cover, so that, when doing research, you can see at a glance in what sources you will be likely to find information; perhaps something for the summer holiday.

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Troop movements and such

Postby Aldus Marius on Sat May 21, 2005 10:59 pm

Omigoodness!! --All our Examining Finalists have come up for air!!! >({|8-o

Mi Coruncani, I shall most certainly welcome any further info you might have. I busted natus on this thing in '95, but that was ten years ago...I am well aware that gaps might have been plugged since then, and other things changed. "Where do the Romans go when it rains / Go when it rains in the Spring, poor things?" ...I used to shove the printout in peoples' faces on dates. Really!! (Is there such a thing as a Roman-Army geek??? --Is there a purity test for it??)

So, yes--relieve my itch, if only for a season. There's a reason why I show this thing to people.

<silly>
Troop movements...?? Giving away troop movements??? --How could you accuse me of such a thing?!? --Why, I haven't said squat about where the Legions have been for the last 1700 years--not one word!!</silly> >({|3-|

Mi Attice, I'd love to upload this and many other things to the SVR site--but nobody's told me how. I posed the question a little over a week ago, and no one has responded. Perhaps the proffered items were not tempting...? Couldn't someone have told me so? Or are we back to 'Finals' again. It's looking more like if the Societas wants something from me, they're going to have to come get it. I don't want it to be that way, but I can't hold my arms out forever.

Your Historian list is an excellent idea, one so elegant yet simple that, like my Pay and Benefits Chart for the Legions, one wonders why no one has ever thought of it before.

Omnes, I am happy to hear that you find my Legion list useful, and gratified that it holds up against the efforts of others. That means I'm on the right track, which is very encouraging to a man who does homework for fun, and who is now in the process of dusting off other things.

Cum magna gratiae,

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Missing Legion info, from Coruncanius

Postby Aldus Marius on Mon Oct 09, 2006 3:06 am

Salvete omnes,

A casual skim through the messages here will show that I responded to, among others, a post by then-Consul Tiberius Coruncanius. He has since left the SVR, and taken his posts with him, including that one. This was rather upsetting, as that post had some good info in it, not previously known to me. The thread is missing something vital without it.

But...! --I've just found an offline copy I've had stashed in my archives. Here ya go. >({|:-)


- - -

Posted: Sat May 21, 2005 6:55 am Post subject: Legion stuff!


Salve Aldus, salvete omnes!

Two things. First the levity: Are you sure that you should be disclosing troop movements and locations in public? (I'm thinking of a Roman equivalent of the WWII posters - Don't Talk, Loose Lips Sink Ships) ...

Second: You've certainly done your work/research. Most of my notes compare nicely with yours. The Eastern Legions I know better than the East so I'll discuss them more. II Traiana did go to Alexandria and most likely at the behest of Hadrian. I think it is attested there in the 210s and Caracalla may have at least attempted to take detachments of this legion for his ill-fated invasion of Parthia.

I, II, III Parthica (the easiest ones to remember) - mostly correct information but I see one or two things that make me pause... I Parthica indeed was stationed at Singara first, but I think it is attested there until the 4th century. The years around 251 were quite bad for the Romans to be sure but I think that Singara remained a Roman outpost until it was destroyed by Shapur II in the late 340s- early 350s. After that point, Nisibis certainly is the base. Now, I think it could have been both, some detachments at Nisibis as early as the 250s and some at Singara until its loss, but I'm just speculating.

After the collapse of the Tetrarchy and the rise of Constantine, II Parthica may indeed have been moved to the Near East. I believe Ammianus states that II Parthica was stationed at Bezabde in the 350s (or detachments at least were there).

III Parthica I always thought remained at Resaina but I think the Notitia Dignitatum lists III Parthica at Apadna.

I will concede that given what we know about the later Roman military, the legion in 350 was not exactly the same thing as it was in 150 or even 250. Structurally, it was smaller (most scholars think) and many bodies of troops listed in later literature as legions might actually be detachments of one of the earlier 33-35 legions that used the legion's name. So it could be possible that your data and mine are correct for the different time periods in question.

Something I've noticed in my research is the gradual shift towards the Near East. From the time of Trajan onwards, especially after Severus, the Roman military expends a vast amount of its manpower and resources in this region. One can see the movement of legions from the West to their permanent or semi-permanent bases in this area from the 1st century on. At times, Rome is placing 11+ legions and their auxiliary and detachments of others into this zone - a figure that is probably a third or more of Rome's total military.

More later, if interested
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