Roman Calendar
by: M. Moravius Horatius Piscinus

MAIUS

May Heaven, Earth, and Air their order keep. May the everlasting stars reel on their way forever unchanged. May peace grow throughout the World. May iron be used solely for harmless toil, and may deadly weapons vanish from the earth (Seneca Hercules Furens 930).

 

1 KALENDS F: Floralia. Vestal Virgin Licinia added an aedicula, pulvinar, and ara to the Aventine Temple of Bona Dea in 123 BCE. There the Flamen Volcanalis would sacrifice to the Bona Dea, in the area that men could enter. Men were prohibited from entering into the Temple itself on the Aventine. Procession of the Serpents held for Angitia, the Marruccini Bona Dea, goddess of healing and prophecy. Festival of the Lares Praestites, the geniuses of watch dogs who protected the City. Lighting of lambs at the tombs of ancestors. Lustratio of the crops at Casilium (Capua). SVR founded with coll. Philosophicum, Latium, Artium and Religionis, 2001 CE.

2 VI Non Mai F: Dies Ater Floralia Rabbits and deer released into the crowds, originally held in the Forum, later moved to the Circus.

3 V Non Mai C: Floralia Circus games conclude with sacrifice to Flora.

4 IV Non Mai C: Even the thorn bush is pleasant, from which is seen the rose (Publilius Syrus 610).

5 III Non Mai C: We measure great men by their virtues, not by their luck (Cornelius Nepos Eumenes 1.1).

6 Pridie Nonas C: Let us live by ancient morals, but let us speak with today’s words (Macrobius 1.5.2).

7 Nonas Mai F: NONAE Diva Julia Maesa (180 CE?). Lighting of lamps and offering of roses at the tombs of ancestors.

8 VIII Idus Mai F: Dies Ater Mens, grant us, goddess, a sound mind and a good name (Persius Sat. 2.8).

9 VII Idus Mai N: LEMURIA Rise and wash before Midnight. Offer beans to the Manes, casting from your mouth over your left shoulder while saying, Haec ego mitto, his redimo meque meosque fabis. Then wash again and bang gongs to drive out the Manes from the house by saying, Manes, exite paterni.

10 VI Idus Mai C: Rosalia Standards in every legion were gathered around the altar at the center of a military camp and crowned with wreaths of roses. Since similar rites were held at family tombs, this military rite may have been intended to honor fallen comrades. Birth of Claudius II, 214 CE.

11 V Idus Mai N: LEMURIA Offer three piles of grain, milk, honey, salt and oil on pottery shards at crossroads to the Lemures, the spirits of the Dead who roam the earth.

12 IV Idus Mai C: Temple of Mars Ultor, 2 BCE. Mars Moles at Cumae.

13 III Idus Mai N: LEMURIA Offering to the Lemures again made this night.

14 Pridie Idus Mai C: Mars Invictus Rite of the Argei when the Vestal Virgines, led by Pontifex Maximus, submerge puppets in the Tiber as part of a sacrifice made to Dis Pater.

15 IDIBUS MAI NP: Feriae Jove Mercuralia Aventine Temple of Mercurius, 495 BCE, with rite honoring His mother Maia. Nothing more ample do I pray, O Maia’s son, save that You will make these my gifts last throughout my life (Horace Satires 2.6.4-5). Lighting of lamps and offering of roses at the tombs of ancestors.

16 XVII Kal Iun F: Dies Ater Let us hope for what we want, but let us endure whatever comes our way (Cicero Pro Sestia 68.143). Ascension of Elagabalus, 218 CE.

17 XVI Kal Iun C: Banquet of the Fratres Arvales held in even numbered years in the house of magister.

18 XV Kal Iun C: The sun shines on us all (Petronius Satyricon 100).

19 XIV Kal Iun C: Fratres Arvales sacrifice to Dea Dia, in even numbered years, at Her sacred grove at the fifth mile on the Via Campania.

20 XIII Kal Iun C: Races held by the fratres Arvales in even numbered years.

21 XII Kal Iun NP: AGONALIA Rex Sacrorum offers a ram to Vediovis in the Regia. Septimus Severus saluted by legions as imperator, 193 CE.

22 XI Kal Iun N: Fortune is given to brave men (Ennius Annales 247). Death of Constatine, 337CE.

23 X Kal Iun NP: TUBILUSRIUM Purification of the trumpets used to announce the opening of the Comitia Calata. Feriae Volcano Rites to Volcanus and Maia. Dies Rosarum when wreaths of roses are laid at tombs and monuments of the Manes.

24 IX Kal Iun C: Supplicatio to Vesta. Comitia Calata assembled to witness wills. Birth of Germanicus Caesar, 15 BCE.

25 VIII Kal Iun C: Dedication day of three temples to Fortuna Publica, Fors Fortuna, and Fortuna Primigenia on the Quirinal.

26 VII Kal Iun C: Go, Quirites, celebrate with joy the goddess of Good Fortune (Ovid Fasti 6.775)

27 VI Kal Iun C: Banquet of the Fratres Arvales held in odd numbered years in the house of their magister

28 V Kal Iun C: Lasas assist us, Lasas delight us, Lasas come to our aid! Neither plague nor ruin, Marmor, allow to be visited on us. Marmor assist us, Marmor defend us, Marmor come to our aid. (Carmen Fratres Arvales)

29 IV Kal Iun C: Fratres Arvales sacrifice to Dea Dia, in odd numbered years, at Her sacred grove at the fifth mile on the Via Campania. Ambarvalia, or triple circuit procession around grain fields, held as a lustratio in northern provinces at this time; conducted around 23 April in Latium.

30 III Kal Iun C: Ludi Tarentini Three days of stage plays held every hundred years in honor of Dis Pater and Prosepina, later converted by Augustus in 17 BCE into the Ludi Saeculares. Races held by the fratres Arvales in odd numbered years.

31 Pridie Kal Iun C: Ludi Saculares Nighttime sacrifice to the Moirai in Campus Martius, followed by theater shows and sellisternia of Juno and Diana by 110 matrons. Rosalia of the standards.

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