Roman Calendar
by: M. Moravius Horatius Piscinus

JUNONIUS

Juno Regina I pray and I ask that you may increase the sovereign power and majesty of the Roman people, the Quirites, in war and peace… Forever may you grant safety, victory and health to the Roman people, the Quirites.. May you preserve the health and welfare of the people of Rome, the Quirites, and may you always remain willingly favorable and propitious to the people of Rome (Acta sacrorum Saecularium 121-2)

1 KALENDAE FABARIAE N: Capitoline temple of Juno Moneta, 344 BCE. Juno Regina brought from Veii to Aventine, 395 BCE. Temple of Mars in Campus Martius, 388 BCE. Mars Ultor in the Forum Agusti, 20 BCE. Offer Carna, Goddess of healthy bodily organs, beans, spelt and bacon fat for good health. Place hawthorn above your windows, and, calling on Cardea, anoint the front door hinges and mark the threshold three times with olive oil using arbutus leaves. Ludi Saeculares: Sacrifice to Jupiter Optimus Maximus on the Capitoline. O Jupiter Capitolinus, to You I pray, I entreat You, who the Roman people have named Optimus after Your kindness and Maximus after Your great power (Cicero Domo 144). Sacrifice of nine cakes, nine popana and nine phthoes cakes to Ilythia. You who are compassionate towards women, who suffer with great labor pains, their bodies strained in slow birth of the hidden child, gently attend her, Ilythia, and favor my prayers (Ovid Amores II.14.19-24). Temple dedicated to Tempestes, 259 BCE. Thanks be to Neptunus and the Tempestates, for returning me safe home again, my venture a success! (Plautus Stichus 402).

2 IV Non Iun F: Dies Ater Ludi Saeculares: Sellisternia of Juno Regina and Terra Mater

3 III Non Iun C: Ludi Saeculares: Sacrifices to Apollo and Diana accompanied by the hymn of Horace and chariot races. Temple of Bellona, Sabine Goddess of War, vowed in 296 BCE, where declarations of war were posted in the Campus Martius.

4 Pridie Nonas C: Temple of Hercules Custus, 82 BCE B. Birth of Socrates 470 BCE.

5 Nones Iun N: NONAE Ludi Saeculares: theatrical shows. Quirinal temple of Semo Sancus (Dius Fidius), 466 BCE. No marriages are to be performed, nor are the flamen and flamincia Dialis to have intercourse, until after the 15th QStDF

6 VIII Idus Iun N: Dies Ater Flaminica Dialis does not comb down her hair, or her nails trim, until after QStDF on 15 June.

7 VII Idus Iun N: Inner sanctum of the Temple of Vesta, the penus, opened to Matrons. Flaminica Dialis appears in public wearing mourning dress.

8 VI Idus Iun N: Mens Bona (Prudence and Intelligence). Theodosius orders all pagans to be imprisoned and tortured, 423 CE.

9 V Idus Iun N: VESTALIA Vesta, the goddess of the hearth; Vacuna, Sabine goddess of victory. Death of Nero by suicide, 68 CE. Septimus Severus enters Rome and is named pontifex maximus, 193 CE.

10 IV Idus Iun N: O Vesta, if I have always brought pure hands to your secret services, make it so now that with this sieve I shall be able to draw water from the Tiber and bring it to Your temple (Vestal Virgin Tuccia in Valerius Maximus 8.1.5 absol).

11 III Idus Iun N: Ludi Saeculares: animal hunt. Matralia: when mothers offer prayers for nephews and nieces to Mater Matuta, at the Temple of Fortuna Virgo. Fall of Troy 1200 BCE.

12 Pridie Idus N: Ara Concordia dedicated in Porticus Liviae, 2 BCE, following exile of Julia.

13 IDIBUS JUNIUS NP: Quinquatrus Minusculae: flute-players take holiday and after roaming the streets, gather at the temple of Minerva for a feast (Varro L.L. 6.17). Temple of Jupiter Invictus, 192 BCE

14 XVIII Kal Quin N: Dies Ater. Quinquatrus Minusculae: tibinicae feast with Jupiter.

15 XVII Kal Quin N: N Quinquatrus Minusculae. Vesta Clauditur: Quando Stercus Delatum Fas, the day on which it is proper to carry out the dung and bird droppings from the temple of Vesta (Varro L.L. 6.32). Prohibitions of sacred law ends after Vesta’s temple is swept and closed

16 XVI Kal Quin C: Destruction of the Serapium in Alexandria by Theophilus, 391 CE.

17 XV Kal Quin C: Ludi Piscatari, festival of fishermen.

18 XIV Kal Quin C: Come, golden-haired Minerva, and favor the task I have begun (Ovid Fasti 6.652).

19 XIII Kal Quin C: Minerva on the Aventine. To you, you alone, O warlike Pallas Minerva, I pray, friend and companion in all my toils (Seneca Hercules Furens 900).

20 XII Kal Quin C: Summanus, god of nocturnal heavens, near Circus Maximus, 278 BCE.

21 XI Kal Quin C: C Battle of Lake Trasimene, 217 BCE

22 X Kal Quin C: L. Aemilius Paulus defeats King Perseus at Pydna 168 BCE

23 IX Kal Quin C: When the ripe ears turn the crop to gold, add the garlic to the onions and when you have sold all then sing and sing again the praises of Fors Fortuna (Columella De Re Rustica 10, 311).

24 VIII Kal Quin C: Fata, Goddesses of fate and chance. Festival for Fors Fortuna on Via Portuensis, 293 BCE, spent by floating down the Tiber on boats adorned with flowers and offerings of libations. Sacrifice to Hercules. Battle of Metaurus where Hasdrabul was defeated at, 207 BCE. Death of Vespasian, ascension of Titus, 79 CE.

25 VII Kal Quin C: Ludi Taurei Quinquennales: Horse races held every five years to honor the Di inferi, last recorded celebrated in 186 BCE. The Immaculate Conception of Romulus, 772 BCE.

26 VI Kal Quin C: Ludi Tauri Quinquennales Death of Julian the Blessed, 363.

27 V Kal Quin C: Lares on Via Sacra. Jupiter Stator. Initium Aestatis

28 IV Kal Quin C: Red guardian, Priapus, placed within this fruitful garden, with your fierce scythe frighten off the birds from this crop (Tibullus I.1.17-18).

29 III Kal Quin C: Hail, Hercules, true son of Jove, an added Glory for the Gods are you. Come now, and dance at your holy rites with skillful feet (Virgil Aeneis 8.301-2).

30 II Kal Quin C: Temple of Hercules Musagetes, est. in Circus Flaminium, 187 BCE.

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