Roman Calendar
by: M. Moravius Horatius Piscinus

JULIUS

 

Gods of land and sea, and of their potent storms, carry us on a gentle breeze and breathe a favorable wind for us to follow (Virgil Aeneis III.528-9).

 

1 KALENDS N: Juno Regina on Aventine, 392 BCE. Fausta Felicitas on Capitoline, 49 BCE. Ascension of Vespasian, 69 CE. Juno Regina, who in Veii now dwells, I pray, that after our victory You will follow us to our City, soon to become Your City as well, where a holy precinct worthy of Your dignity will be built to receive You (Livy 5.21.3: Camillius’ evocation). SVR founds coll. Historicum, 2001 CE.

2 VI Non Quint N: Dies Ater. He is the very worst of farmers who works under shelter in fine weather (Cato in Pliny N. H. 18.8). Birth of diva Matidia, 68 CE.

3 V Non Quint N: Aquaelicium: In the heat of summer the pontifices called upon Jupiter Pluvius to bring rain by holding a pompa in which the lapis manalis, a cylindrical rain-stone, was rolled from the Temple of Mars in the Campus Martius through the Porta Capena to the Capitolium. Magistrates walked in the procession without their insignia and matrons followed barefoot. Constantine defeats Licinius at Hadrianopolis, 324 CE.

4 IV Non Quint N: Ara Pacis dedicated by Augustus, 13 BCE. Garland Your elegant coiffure with Actium’s laurel, Pax; be present and soften the whole world with Your gentleness. Let there be no enemies, no cause for triumphs. You will hand greater glory to our leaders than war can bring (Ovid Fasti 1.711-13)

5 III Non Quint NP: POPLIFUGIA ‘scattering of the people’ at the disappearance of Romulus. Feriae Jovi: Almighty Jupiter, who both engendered and fathered rulers, things, and gods, God of Gods, You who are both the One and All (Valerius Soranus FPL fr.4)

6 Pridie Nonas N: Ludi Apollinares: established in 212 BCE: races in the Circus Maximus. Temple of Fortuna Muliebris, 488 BCE, vowed after Coriolanus was driven off by the women of Rome.

7 Non Quint N: NONAE CAPROTINAE Women sacrifice to Juno Caprotina beneath a wild fig tree, where ancillae are honored for having saved the women of Rome from a Latin army. Palibus duobus: Great Pales, in memory of you we sing, shepherd of Amphrysis, and all of you who come from forests and streams on mount Lycaeus in Arcadia (Virgil Georg. 3.1-2). Ludi Apollinares: races and sacrifice to Consus in the Circus Maximus.

8 VIII Idus N: Dies Ater Ludi Apollinares: theatrical performances. The Vitula sacrifice of a heifer and fruits of the earth made by the pontifices to Juno (Virgil Eclog. 3.77).

9 VII Idus N: Ludi Apollinares: theatrical performances. Mark the walnut in the wood… if the fruit prevails, a like store of grain will follow (Virgil Georg. I.187-90).

10 VI Idus C: Ludi Apollinares: races in the Circus Maximus. Ascension of Antonius Pius, 138 CE.

11 V Idus Quint C: Ludi Apollinares: races in the Circus Maximus. If cut in the increase of the Moon, grain will increase in size (Pliny N. H. 18.74).

12 IV Idus Quint C: Ludi Apollinares: people feast at the entrance to their house before attending theatrical performances. Ancillae given their freedom and presented with a toga praetexta at the ludi. Birth of Julius Caesar, 100 BCE.

13 III Idus Quint C: Temple of Apollo, 431 BCE. Ludi Apollinares: theatrical performances.

14 Pridie Idus C: From the very outset I pray to You, Apollo, inventor of music and of all the healing arts, come to my aid and this undertaking, bless it with Your laurel (Ovid Remedia Amoris 75-76).

15 Idus Quint NP: IDIBUS QUINTILI Tranvectio Equitum: Procession of Equites in red togae on white horses from Porta Capena to the Capitolium, halting along the way to sacrifices at the Temple of Castor and Pollux. Battle of Lake Regillus, 496 BCE.

16 XVII Kal Sext F: Dies Ater Sulpicius failed to obtain proper omens, leads to defeat at Allia, 390 BCE. Beginning of tradition not to hold rites on day following the Ides.

17 XVI Kal Sext C: Honos by Portus Capena, 233 BCE. Honos and Virtus, 233BCE. ADONIA: dancing lament of the Salmbas over the death of Adonis. Place pots of germinating fennel, barley, wheat and lettuce to float on river in honor of Adonis. Victoria on the Capitoline.

18 XV Kal Sext C: Dies Ater ambush of the Fabii at Cremona, 477 BCE. Dies Alliensis, day of ill omen, Roman defeat by Gauls on the River Allia, 390 BCE.

19 XIV Kal Sext NP: LUCARIA rite of clearing ground in woods and thickets, "letting in the light," celebrated in grove of Leucaria between Via Salaria and Tiber. ADONIA celebrates the Resurrection of Adonis. The Great Fire of Rome, 64 CE.

20 XIII Kal Sext C: O god, who with a nod can stir the ocean foam, You Neptunus, who with Your Salacia encompass the lands of the earth, hear my prayer and grant me Your indulgence (Valerius Flaccus Argo. I.194-6

21 XII Kal Sext NP: LUCARIA rite of clearing ground in woods and thickets, "letting in the light," celebrated in grove of Rhea Silva. Birth of Damo, daughter of Pythagoras. Birth of Maximian, 250 CE.

22 XI Kal Sext C: Concordia, 367 BCE. Saturn and Rhea. Honor. Destruction of the Eleusinian Sanctuary and martyrdom of Mithras Hilarius and the priests of Demeter, 395 CE.

23 X Kal Sext NP: NEPTUNALIA supplicatio and immolatio to Neptunus and Salacia. Thanks be to Neptune my patron, who dwells in the fish-teeming salt sea, for speeding me homeward from his sacred abode, well laden and in a good hour. (Plautus Rodens 906-910)

24 IX Kal Sext N: O Neptunus, brother of Jove and Nereus, heartily and gladly I give you praise and grateful thanks. And to you, Neptunus, before all other gods I offer and accord you the highest thanks. I give you praise, for you know how to treat men fairly; this befits the gods (Plautus Trinummus 819-30)

25 VIII Kal Sext NP: FURRINALIA The flamen Furrinalis sacrifices to Furrina in Her sacred grove, where Gaius Gracchus was murdered in 123 BCE. Death of Constantius II, 306 CE. Purification in the River Volturnus near Temple of Diana Tifatina in Capua.

26 VII Kal Sext C May Laverna love me, she who watches over thieves. If you do not order those thieves to return to me my things, I shall make a row before your temple (Plautus Aulularia 445-6)

27 VI Kal Sext C: Procession of the Gods of the Underworld at Lake Avernus.

28 V Kal Sext C: Grant, O Gods, that the earth may lie soft and gently upon the shades of our ancestors (Persius Satires 7.207)

29 IV Kal Sext C: Harsh Fortuna, delay for now Your rage (Apuleius Met. 6.28).

30 III Kal Sext C: Fortuna Huiusce Diei, 101BCE. Each person should stay within the limits of his fortune (Ovid Tristia 3.4.26).

31 Prid Kal Sext C: May You, holy goddess of Plenty, whom alone I serve, be kind to me and bless me always (Plautus Captivi 877).

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